Fates of Many
Židovská komunita a podnikání
Jews and TvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky Cheese of LoĂ ÂĄtice ĂÂ
LoĂ ÂĄtice are renown for their tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese throughout the country and abroad. This unique cheese has been enjoyed by rich and poor for centuries. The term tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky surfaced in written sources from the end of 16th century. By the 18th century tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese was aĂÂ well known delicacy and became an important business commodity. AĂÂ record of SchindlerĂ˘âŹâ˘s tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese manufacture in Hnevotin near Olomouc dates from 1790. During the 19th century HnĂâşvotĂÂn was the center of tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese manufacturing, but in the 20th century LoĂ ÂĄtice became the foremost producer. Information regarding the first LoĂ ÂĄtice cheese makers is based on oral history. According to these sources aĂÂ trade secret came to the town in two waves in the second half of the 19th century. Anna SekaninovĂÂĄ is considered the godmother of LoĂ ÂĄtice tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese manufacturing. She was familiar with the process since she came from the Schindler family in HnĂâşvotĂÂn.
Ă˘âŹĹThe widow with five children, who knew the secret of making this really popular food was brought to LoĂ ÂĄtice by a merchant named Friedman, who was apparently of Jewish religion. He combined the entrepreneurial spirit of his race with the experience of the mother SekaninovĂÂĄ and became one of the founders of the LoĂ ÂĄtice tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese tradition.Ă˘âŹÂ
A. Lang: VyprĂÂĄvĂâşnĂÂ o tvarĂ ÂŻĂ ÂžkĂÂĄch. In: SevernĂÂ Morava 4, Ă Â umperk: 1959, p. 13.
A stocking-knitter and carter Josef Wessels also learned the secret in HnĂâşvotĂÂn and started the successful operation in LoĂ ÂĄtice during 1876. From the beginning the cheese was transported to buyers by carriers or by horse drawn wagons. A later use of the railway increased the number of customers, which were located for instance in Brno, Prague and Vienna, also in Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Turkey etc. During the 1920s and 1930s there were approximately 17 tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese makers in LoĂ ÂĄtice. About third of them were Jewish, who operated small to medium family businesses. Primary Jewish tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese makers were: Eckstein, Klein, Wischnitzer and Langer.
Jewish firms were closed by the Nazis and remaining operations were nationalized after 1948. Presently the tradition and fame of the LoĂ ÂĄtice tvarĂ ÂŻĂ Âžky cheese is being kept alive by the successor of Josef Wessels Ă˘âŹâ company A.W. spol. s r.o.
|Marketing Materials, Lostice around 1930
Tannery Ă˘âŹâ L. Ehrlich
|Tvaruzky CheeseĂ˘âŹÂ Manufacturing Ă˘âŹâ S. Eks|
|Butter and Egg Trade Ă˘âŹâ E. KnĂÂśpflmacher|